WP2: Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Function
WP2 (Leader: Dr. Eiken) will investigate the separate and combined effects of hypoxia and bedrest on cardiovascular and respiratory functions, both at rest and during physical exertion (exercise).
1: measure systolic and diastolic cardiac function at rest 2: volitional and non-volitional respiratory muscle strength at rest 3: cardiovascular and respiratory functions during exercise, with special reference to effects on the various levels of the O2 pathway from ambient air to the mitochondria of skeletal muscles
• Cardiac function will be assessed at rest using three-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging
• Pulmonary function will be assessed at rest by means of dynamic and static spirometry and by measuring volitional and non-volitional respiratory muscle strength
• Respiratory, cardiovascular and skeletal muscle limitations to oxidative metabolism will be assessed during exercise. We will measure cardiac output, pulmonary ventilation, chest-wall volume changes, oxygen uptake, arterial blood O2-saturation and oxygenation of the brain (frontal cortex), working leg muscles (vastus lateralis), and respiratory muscles (intercostal muscle). Respiration in skeletal muscle mitochondria will also be examined.
Image: the human heart and its blood vessels.